Human papillomaviruses hpv are the causative agents of the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Cancer of the larynx accounts for 3% of all cancers, making it the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Highrisk hpv is well established as the primary cause of cervical cancer. Some types of hpv infection cause warts, and some can cause different types of cancer. There are more than 100 varieties of hpv, but most emphasis is given to the 40 varieties that affect the genitals, mouth, or throat, that are passed through sexual contact. Pdf biology and natural history of human papillomavirus infection. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the association of genital human papillomavirus hpv with cervical cancer is strong, independent of other risk factors, and consistent in several countries. It is the most common sexually transmitted infection 1 4 and is transmitted sexually by both sexes 2 and vertically from an infected maternal genital tract. Fulltext pdf diagnosis of human papillomavirus genital tract infection. It is estimated that, because the virus is easily transmitted by skintoskin genital contact, 80% of sexuallyactive college students will become infected with it before graduation. For example, the fourth fully classified papillomavirus of domestic dogs is canis familiaris papillomavirus type 4, which is a chipapillomavirus 2 species within the chipapillomavirus genus. There are more than 20 different cancerassociated hpv types, but little is known about their geographic variation.
Progression to cancer is actually an unintended consequence of the complex hpv life cycle. The relationship of cervical cancer and sexual behavior was suspected for more than 100 years and was established by epidemiologic studies in the 1960s. A qualitative analysis of providers perceptions rebecca b. Human papillomavirus hpv human papillomavirus, or hpv, is the most common sexually transmitted infection sti in the united states. Human papillomavirus dna versus papanicolaou screening. Human papillomavirus and human disease the american journal. In 2011, the number of laryngeal cancerrelated deaths worldwide was estimated to be 3560. Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Human papillomavirus type and disease association cutaneous other types common warts handsfeet mucosal 40 types highrisk types 16,18, others lowgrade cervical abnormalities high grade abnormalities cancer precursors anogenital cancers lowrisk types 6, 11, others lowgrade cervical abnormalities genital warts. Human papilloma virus hpv human papillomavirus hpv is a common sexually transmitted infection sti. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection. Human papillomavirus and oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma.
The prevalence and risk of human papillomavirus infection. Healthcare providers can help prevent this cancer by recommending hpv vaccination when appropriate, regularly screening women for cervical cancer. We examined the transmission of human papillomavirus hpv in 25 heterosexual, monogamous couples 25 men, 25 women, followed up over an average of 7. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among females and males, national health and nutrition examination survey, united states, 20072016. Human papillomavirus infection hpv infection is an infection caused by the human papillomavirus hpv. Original article from the new england journal of medicine human papillomavirus dna versus papanicolaou screening tests for cervical cancer. Dec 12, 2014 human papillomavirus hpv is the most common std in the united states with an estimated 5. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. A recent report that 93 per cent of invasive cervical cancers worldwide contain human papillomavirus hpv may be an underestimate, due to sample inadequacy or integration events affecting the hpv l1 gene, which is the target of the polymerase chain reaction pcr.
Cancer often takes years, even decades, to develop after a person gets hpv. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. The most common hpv types worldwide are 16 and 18, which are the main causative viruses for cervical cancer and are both preventable by vaccination. The prevalence and risk of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant women volume 142 issue 8 p. These hpvassociated lesions can be classified into two broad types on the basis of their biologic behavior, benign lesions and premalignant or malignant lesions. The impact and cost effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination. Hpv can cause cervical and other cancers including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. What affects human papillomavirus vaccination rates. Trends in prevalence in human papillomavirus types and. The human papillomavirus hpv causes most cases of cervical cancer. Recent studies have suggested associations between the composition of the vaginal microbiota, infection with human papillomavirus hpv and progression to cervical dysplasia and cancer. Grading of scientific evidence immunogenicity of 2 vs. About 80 percent of women will get at least one type of hpv at some point in their lifetime.
Populationlevel impact of human papillomavirus vaccination. Human papillomavirus hpv world health organization. Pooled analysis of the control arms of efficacy trials of hpv1618 as04adjuvanted vaccine. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature.
Although the healthy people 2020 initiative, introduced by the cdc in 2010, calls for an. After reading the update on human papillomavirus hpv in the march 2019 issue by zhang and batur, 1 i was hoping for some clarification on a few points the statement is made that up to 70% of hpvrelated cervical cancer cases can be prevented with vaccination. Infection by oncogenic viruses can promote different stages of carcinogenesis. It is usually spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus hpv. International journal of gynecology and obstetrics 2006 94 supplement 1, s8. Cancers free fulltext the interplay between antiviral. Human papillomavirus prevalence and clinicopathological associations in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the lebanese population volume 2 issue 7 r mhawej, c ghorra, s naderi, n khoueir, w abou hamad, a e melkane. Cervical cancer is estimated to affect approximately 500 000 women each year, of whom 80% live in developing countries. Pdf human papilloma virus hpv infection in children and. There are over 100 varieties of hpv, more than 40 of which are passed through sexual. Immunology and vaccinepreventable diseases pink book.
Hpv infection is a viral infection that commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths warts. We recruited a convenience sample of women 25 to 65 years of age who were undergoing clinically indicated colposcopy at two medical centers in north. The official journal of the international papillomavirus society, pvr is an open access. Test accuracy of human papillomavirus in urine for.
We read with interest the metaanalysis on the impact of human papillomavirus hpv vaccination programmes by melanie drolet and colleagues. More than a decade after the introduction of the human papillomavirus hpv vaccine in the united states, only 51. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with highrisk human papillomavirus especially type 16 can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The prevalence and risk of human papillomavirus infection in. To provide evidence for hpv vaccination policies, we conducted this study to examine the prevalence and factors associated with anal hpv infection among msm attending university in. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive. Recently published articles from papillomavirus research. The worldwide prevalence of cervical hpv infection is approximately 10%. Human papillomaviruses are small, doublestranded dna. Human papillomavirus hpv is a viral infection thats passed between people through skintoskin contact. Human papillomavirus dna versus papanicolaou screening tests. About 90% of hpv infections cause no symptoms, and resolve spontaneously within two years.
Test accuracy of human papillomavirus in urine for detection. About 40 of them are spread through direct sexual contact with someone who has the virus. But some types of genital hpv can cause cancer of the. Oral manifestations of human papillomavirus infections. Human papillomavirus infection poland pdf ppt case. After reading the update on human papillomavirus hpv in the march 2019 issue by zhang and batur, 1 i was hoping for some clarification on a few points. Trends in prevalence in human papillomavirus types and their. There are wide differences in cervical cancer incidence and. Viral infections contribute as a cause of 1520% of all human cancers.
Getting to know human papillomavirus hpv and the hpv vaccines. Human papillomavirus as a cause of oropharyngeal cancer n engl j med 356. Testing cervical specimens for dna of oncogenic highrisk types of human papillomavirus hpv, the causal agents of cervical cancer, has entered clinical practice, but this test is used mainly. After reading the update on human papillomavirus hpv in the march 2019 issue by zhang and batur,11 i was hoping for some clarification on a few points. Hpv the journal of the american osteopathic association. Prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus hpv infection before and after pregnancy. Among many types of hpv, around 15 are linked to cancer. Papillomavirus research pvr, the journal of hpv and other small dna tumor viruses publishes innovative papers related to all aspects of papillomaviruses and other small dna tumor viruses. Increased anorectal human papillomavirus hpv infection is related to the recent trends in sexual behavior in both homosexual and heterosexual groups and prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus hiv. Casecontrol study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal. There are different types of hpv, and about 14 million people in the u. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in.
However in some, an hpv infection persists, and results in either warts or precancerous lesions. Most sexually active men and women being exposed to the virus at some point during their lifetime. While infection is generally asymptomatic and can be cleared by the host immune system, when persistence occurs, hpv can become a risk factor for malignant transformation. Pdf papillomaviruses are one of the oldest viruses known, dating back 330 million years. Human papillomavirus and invasive cervical cancer in. In spite of effective screening methods, cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Human papillomavirus cleveland clinic journal of medicine. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer. The statement is made that up to 70% of hpvrelated cervical cancer cases can be prevented with vaccination.
Human papillomavirus hpv is a dna virus that causes sexually transmitted infections sti. They can also spread through other intimate, skintoskin contact. Journal of the national cancer institute, volume 87, issue 11, 7 june 1995. More than 100 types of human papillomavirus hpv, of which more than 40 are transmitted sexually, affect men and women. The statement is made that up to 70% of hpvrelated cervical cancer cases can be. Human papillomavirus hpv is a group of related viruses. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions include leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. Clark, phdb aboston university school of medicine, department of obstetrics and gynecology, boston, massachusetts b edithnourse rogers memorial veterans hospitalboston university school of public health. Human papillomavirus hpv list of high impact articles. All of these lesions show a clear association with hpv. Sep 20, 2018 there is a global increase in the prevalence of human papillomavirus hpv. Human papillomavirus hpv is a doublestranded dna virus.
Each animal species may be infected with multiple genetically. It was investigated the hpv prevalence, genotype distribution and hpv relationship with cervical lesions among women living with hiv in sergipe state, northeast brazil. A total of 53 heterosexual transmission events were observed among 16 couples 14 maletofemale and 39 femaletomale. Human papillomavirus march 2019 cleveland clinic journal of. Human papillomavirus 175 11 human papillomavirus hpv is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the united states. Our statement hpv immunization can prevent up to 70% of cases of cervical cancer due to hpv as well as 90% of genital warts was based on a statement by thaxton and waxman, ie, that immunization against hpv types 16 and 18 has the. Lichtenberg for giving us the opportunity to clarify and expand on questions regarding hpv vaccine efficacy. Position paper may 2017 original english and french versions pdf 2.
Human papillomavirus hpv disease most common sexually transmitted infection in the u. Doorbar journal of clinical virology 32s 2005 s7s15. Pharmacist insights into adolescent human papillomavirus. They can cause warts on different parts of your body. The international agency for research on cancer included seven human papillomavirus types covered by ninevalent vaccine and five not yet covered by any available vaccines. There are treatments for the health problems that hpv. Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that. Nov 29, 2017 human papillovirus hpv is the most common sexually transmited infection in the u. To provide evidence for hpv vaccination policies, we conducted this study to examine the prevalence and factors associated with anal hpv infection among msm attending university in china.
Human papillomaviruses hpv are a group of divergent dna viruses, of which a select few evolutionarily related hpvs have emerged to be. We recruited a convenience sample of women 25 to 65 years of age who were undergoing clinically indicated. They dichotomised studies on the basis of the proportion of people vaccinated in that country. Human papillomavirus as a driver of head and neck cancers. Recent reports suggest that hpv may affect sperm parameters and lead to male infertility. Human papillomavirus hpv is a viral infection that is passed between people through skintoskin contact. A hospitalbased casecontrol study was undertaken to examine the role of human papillomavirus hpv in the development of invasive cervical cancer in brazil. Getting to know human papillomavirus hpv and the hpv. The potential oncogenic role of human papillomavirus hpv infection in the development of laryngeal cancer has been well recognized in recent decades.
Data of consecutive 15 8 patients undergoing human papillomavirus dna testing from 1998 to 2018 were retrospectively identified. Human papilloma virus hpv infection in children and adolescents. Human papillomavirus march 2019 cleveland clinic journal. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer the lancet. The human papillomavirus hpv family includes more than 170 different types of virus that infect stratified epithelium. Pdf oral manifestations of human papillomavirus infections. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection by number of. To investigate trends in prevalence of various human papillomavirus types in order to assess the unmet clinical needs for women affected by human papillomavirusrelated disease. Men who have sex with men msm attending university are a highrisk population for human papillomavirus hpv infection and are a neglected population of hpv vaccination programs in china. Since the early twentieth century, hpv has been suggested to be the source of laryngeal cancer morbidity. Human papillomavirus prevalence and clinicopathological. There are wide differences in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The interplay between antiviral signalling and carcinogenesis in human papillomavirus infections. Regional variation in human papillomavirus vaccination.
Small dna virus more than 150 types first vaccine was licensed in 2006. It has been on a steady increase over the last 50 years and is currently the most common std seen by colorectal surgeons, with a million new cases seen every year 4. Human papillomavirus hpv vaccination is recommended by the advisory committee on immunization practices acip to prevent hpvassociated diseases, including cancers of the cervix, anus, and oropharynx. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the association of genital human papillomavirus hpv with cervical cancer is strong, independent of. Pdf human papillomavirus hpv is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted.
Thus, universal vaccination of adolescents against hpv could reduce racial disparities in hpv. Original article what affects human papillomavirus vaccination rates. The role of human papillomavirus in the pathogenesis of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Our statement hpv immunization can prevent up to 70% of cases of cervical cancer due to hpv as well as 90% of genital warts was based on a statement by thaxton and waxman, ie, that immunization against hpv types 16 and 18 has the potential to. Human papillomavirus hpv is the most common sexually transmitted. Identifying new targets to improve skeletal formation in human ppt version pdf version. Vv, ca, and feh demonstrate characteristic hpvinduced cytopathic effects, whereas scp infrequently shows such changes. Journal of the national cancer institute, 1995, 8718. Each papillomavirus type is named sequentially using the scientific name of the host species. The official journal of the international papillomavirus society. The vaginal microbiota, human papillomavirus and cervical. Human papillomavirus hpv high impact list of articles ppts journals 6589.
Human papillomavirus infection and laryngeal cancer risk. An update on cervical cancer prevention and screening guidelines salina zhang, pelin batur cleveland clinic journal of medicine mar 2019, 86 3 173178. It can also cause cancer in the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils called oropharyngeal cancer. Human papillomavirus types were classified at highrisk according to the classification of the international agency for research on cancer. Papillomavirus research aims to publish top quality articles, describing innovative research advances in the field of human tumour virology, including epstein barr virus ebv, human t cell leukemia virus htlv, polyoma virus pyv, merkel cell polyomavirus mcpyv, kaposis sarcoma herpes virus kshv and papillomaviruses pv, as well as other related animal tumour virus models. Human papillomavirus hpv is a sexually transmitted infection sti that has been linked to 99.212 861 1257 563 1028 184 348 436 331 114 716 784 192 412 78 1312 297 766 1024 757 1210 27 852 1318 919 238 717 753 847 613 412 1261 1163 1257 275 1380